Some colleagues and I recently received a rejection of a letter to the editor of JAMA. When we saw this cover, we were immediately struck by the child in the middle, and decided a letter was needed. I guess I shouldn't be surprised by the rejection, given that JAMA recently rejected another piece of mine on how stigma pervades the medical and scientific communities that work on childhood obesity. (That piece, however, was accepted by another in the JAMA family, JAMA Pediatrics, and will be published July 1.)
The refusal to engage in the discussion is as informative as the original point we were trying to make. Below is the image on the cover, which should link you to Dr. Zylke's description--my apologies to those who can't access it freely. I think our letter was appropriate and true.
Dear Dr. Zylke,
It was with great excitement that child health researchers came across a special issue of JAMA focused on child health last week. Unfortunately we found this issue’s cover alarming. The illustration promotes the stigmatization of obesity that has not only pervaded popular culture, but, as so clearly demonstrated here, the research and medical communities, as well.
On the cover, we instantly saw a portrayal of an obese child with a large soda-an image that managed to meet all three criteria for defining pejorative images from the Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale University media guidelines.1 While you say this image tried to portray “problems stemming from social or environmental issues,” the use of a picture of an individual child with a large soda to reflect the high prevalence of obesity among children is stigmatizing in that it recognizes the individual behavior without also recognizing the larger environmental roots.
Far more disturbing are the subtleties apparent in the image. The fact that so many people in the scientific community must have looked at this obese girl—with an awkward facial expression, unflattering clothing, and avoiding the world—as an honest representation of childhood obesity is truly disheartening. Social constructs of disease place responsibility on different individuals, assigning blame in ways that portray children as either victims or perpetrators.2 On this cover, nearly all these children are either promoters of their own health or “victims” of their diseases, except this child, who is shown as a perpetrator of hers.
In your description of the cover’s more idyllic images, you quote Norman Rockwell: “I paint life as I would like it to be.” We would like to offer up another of Mr. Rockwell’s quotes: “Right from the beginning, I always strived to capture everything I saw as completely as possible.” The narrow, incomplete and negative view of the obese child so painfully portrayed on the cover demonstrates the narrow, incomplete view that many people have of obese children and obesity itself.
If we only focus on the doubt and difficulty of changing individual behaviors, we will not reduce the prevalence of obesity as significantly as if we address systemic factors. Continual perpetuation of stigmatizing images of obese children reinforces beliefs that obesity is a problem driven only by individual behaviors. Such stigma serves to dehumanize obese people, and may even serve to perpetuate obesity itself.3
Asheley Cockrell Skinner, PhD
Stephanie E. Hasty, BA
Eliana M. Perrin, MD MPH
1. Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. Guidelines for the Portrayal of Obese Persons in the Media. 2012; http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/bias/media/MediaGuidelines_PortrayalObese.pdf. Accessed May 9, 2013.
2. Herek GM, Capitanio JP, Widaman KF. Stigma, social risk, and health policy: public attitudes toward HIV surveillance policies and the social construction of illness. Health Psychology. Sep 2003;22(5):533-540.
3. Puhl RM, Latner JD. Stigma, obesity, and the health of the nation's children. Psychological Bulletin. Jul 2007;133(4):557-580.